Battery

Now a days we all are familiar with name of battery because every gadget we use, have battery inside from our handset to laptop. The battery can be from  tiny to large as 2 v 2000 ampere cells.

The first device source of power was battery in form of electrical term. Battery was invented before the faraday’s law who invented generator for electrical power.

Battery provide power by conduction +ve ions and -ve ions. these ions flow through the complete path externally by connected wires. That current provide power to any load from lights to motors or any other like electronic circuit board etc.

 

There is three types of basic battery.

  1. Dry Battery

2.Wet Battery

3.Gel Battery

 

Dry Battery

                       Dry battery terminology is used for maintenance free battery which are in sealed casing and don’t need any extra work for maintenance. There batteries are mostly rechargeable and can be charged when low in power or voltage. Now a days there batteries are becoming common in wide range of use.

 

Wet Battery

Wet batteries are also used in some applications. these batteries need special water to be added and maintained at prescribed levels of water.

 

Gel Battery

Gel batteries are modern form of batteries which are in between dry and wet batteries. This is latest battery technology which are also maintenance free and long lasting.

These kind of batteries are in wide range of industries usage in large power banks. Power banks are becoming common in power plants and most commonly in wind and Solar power Plants. Batteries power banks are also used in thermal, hydel and other kind of power plants for emergency cases.

Apparent power

Apparent power is electrical power summed up of two powers, real power and reactive power. Real power is power which is actually  used by devices , machines, instruments etc in form of heat or magnetic field. it also can be used in other farms as storages like batteries, capacitors, inductors etc.

AC power has two components real power and reactive power. Apparent power is power which appears on the terminal of ac load like motors mostly.  Apparent power is measured in VA,KVA MVA. All the generators are rated in KVA , VA or MVA. Apparent power is sum of reactive and real powers. Reactive power is always present but it is not used. Reactive power is always transmitted back to the system or generator while real power is used by the load. All inductive load or lagging power factor loads transmits reactive power back to the system.

Only resistive load like lights or heaters etc don’t use reactive powers but real power.

In figure you can see the apparent power, real power and reactive power. Real power is also called Active power and True power. Real power is measured in KW and denoted by S. Reactive power is measured in KVAR,VAR,MVAR and denoted by Q

Ampere

Ampere is international  unit for current. The flow of charges is called current. if one coulomb charge flow in one second then it is called one ampere of current. ampere is not coulomb but coulomb per second. it is denoted by A or amp. in consumption  Ampere is  as: A=V/I   this is called ohm’s law. this will be discussed in next article.The batteries are rated in AH Ampere- Hours. This means how much current a battery can provide for one hour. this is ideal condition.

Ampacity

The term ampacity comes from ampere  capacity. this means capacity of amperes of a wire which it can carry. Proper definition we can make is the ability of any wire to carry out the current in amperes is called ampacity of that wire.The ampacity of wires changes with size and voltage and also material of wires. Copper wires have more ampacity than aluminum or any other metal.

Some details are as below:

Wire Size (AWG)    Copper conductor (A)                  Aluminum Conductor (A)

14                                       20                                                             ….

12                                       25                                                             20

10                                       35                                                             30

8                                         50                                                             40

6                                        65                                                             50

4                                         85                                                             65

2                                         115                                                           90

1                                        130                                                            100

1/0                                     150                                                            120

2/0                                     175                                                            135

3/0                                     200                                                            155

4/0                                     230                                                            180

If you have any suggestions please comment…..

Alternator

Science is not a magic. it always exists in nature and scientists or engineer only make them usable or visible by machines. same like this electricity is not magic, it is also produce one of the nature quality which states” when a conductor is moved in magnetic field , there is potential difference on conductor  end” this phenomena is used in alternator or AC generator. when a conductor “armature” is rotated in magnetic field it produces potential difference of voltage which cause to move charges from one end to other of closed loop. these moving charges are called current.

 

Alternator is second name of electrical generator. it produces the alternating voltage and current.  These generators are rated in mostly KVA. it consists of two major parts, engine and generator. The engine rotates the shaft of alternator and alternator produces the electricity which is collected on its terminals. The alternators are of 2 basic types. Single phase and Three Phase alternators. Single phase alternators produce single phase electricity and three phase produce three phase electricity

Generator Synchronization

The Generator is electrical generator which produce AC or dc power. The synchronization phenomena is mostly considered for the ac power generators or alternators.  Synchronization is to match the frequency, voltage and phase angle of the two or more working generators and for three phase, phase sequence. In practical mostly used and simplest method is lamp testing. In this method one lamp or bulb is inserted between two alternators phases. the lamp must be between the Generator and line phases RYB simultaneously. When the bulb is on, it means generators are not synchronized and you have to change the speed of alternator for synchronization. if bulb is off then your alternator is synchronized.

The other method is  sync meter which do the same work by digitally or analog measuring the voltage and frequency of both alternators or alternator and line.

 

The things always keep in mind for the synchronization are:

 

RMS voltage,

Frequency,

Phase angle,

and phase sequence.

 

These all things are matched when your frequency is matched if both of the alternators are, of same capacity or rating.

The rating is different then there may be difficulty in synchronization but can be synchronized. The synchronization of Alternators are always done by change the speed or Alternators for same design frequency and voltage. Synchronization is mostly done on power plants for adding the new upcoming generator in line.

Alternating current

Alternating current or AC current is which changes its magnitude and direction at every moment. AC current may have different shapes as like sinusoidal, saw tooth, square wave etc. Mostly used in power system is sinusoidal for AC current and voltage. AC current is produced by generators or Alternators. AC current used in power system is in mostly 50hz or 60 hz.

AC adapter

AC adopters are basically rectifiers which convert AC power to DC power on different voltage and current levels. Actually ac adopters are external power supplies with AC plug in. these adopters can be of different voltage levels of input as 110v ,220v.230v etc. The power of these adopter may vary from mille watt  to mega watts. Adopter may have out pins or as USB plugs. with different companies it has different style and shape. AC adopter may have output voltage 3v,6v,9v,12v,19v,24v etc according to requirement with different current ranges. The current ranges vary from mille amps to kilo amps. For working of Ac adopter refer to the Rectifiers.